8 Ransomware Types and How to Defend Against Them

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What Is Ransomware?

Ransomware is a type of malicious software that encrypts or locks the victim’s data, rendering it inaccessible until a ransom is paid to the attacker. Phishing emails, exploiting vulnerabilities in software, and social engineering are tactics used by cybercriminals to gain access to systems and networks. Once inside the network, they can deploy ransomware as part of an advanced persistent threat to demand payment for decrypting or unlocking the affected files.

In recent years, ransomware attacks have dramatically increased, posing significant threats to businesses worldwide. Understanding different types of ransomware and how they operate can help technology practitioners and leadership implement effective ransomware prevention strategies

8 Types of Ransomware Attacks

Crypto Ransomware

Crypto ransomware is one of the most common types of ransomware infections. It encrypts files on your computer or network and demands payment in return for the decryption key. This type can cause severe damage as it can spread quickly across an entire organization’s infrastructure.


This type involves stealing sensitive data from an organization’s system before encrypting it, then demanding a ransom in exchange for not publishing or selling stolen information publicly. Exfiltration has become increasingly popular among cybercriminals as they seek to profit both from ransoms paid by victims and selling stolen data on underground markets.

DDoS Ransomware

In DDoS (Distributed Denial-of-Service) attacks, attackers flood victim networks with traffic until they crash or are unable to function correctly. Attackers threaten to carry out a DDoS attack unless victims pay a specific amount demanded by them.

Locker Ransomware

The locker variant denies access to infected devices entirely, by locking users out instead of encrypting their files, like crypto-ransomware does. It renders affected devices unusable, unless the demanded sum is paid, usually through cryptocurrency payments such as Bitcoin or Ethereum.


This type involves scaring victims into paying a ransom by displaying fake pop-up messages that claim their computer has been infected with malware. Scareware is not as dangerous as other types, but it can still be costly for those who fall victim to this scam.

Double Extortion

In double extortion attacks, cybercriminals steal sensitive information from organizations before encrypting their files. They then threaten to release stolen data publicly if the organization does not pay the ransom demanded for decrypting files. This method increases pressure on victims to pay since they may face legal and financial consequences if confidential information gets exposed publicly.

Mobile Ransomware

This variant targets mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets running the Android operating system. It usually spreads via malicious apps downloaded from third-party app stores outside Google Play Store, where security measures are less strict. Mobile ransomware can lock users out of their phones until they pay a ransom, usually demanded through cryptocurrency payments.

Ransomware-as-a-Service (RaaS)

This type of ransomware is a subscription-based model offered by cybercriminals to other criminals. RaaS allows anyone with little or no technical knowledge to launch their ransomware attack using pre-built tools and infrastructure provided by the service provider.

How to Defend and Prevent Against Ransomware Attacks

To protect your organization from ransomware threats, it is essential to implement a comprehensive security strategy that includes the following steps:

Practice Good IT Hygiene

Maintaining good IT hygiene is critical for preventing ransomware attacks. This involves keeping software up-to-date with the latest patches and updates, ensuring strong passwords are used across all accounts, disabling unnecessary services or features on devices connected to your network, and regularly monitoring systems for signs of compromise.

Implement and Enhance Email Security

Email remains one of the most common vectors for ransomware delivery. Strengthening email security by implementing best practices, such as using advanced spam filters and anti-phishing tools like Domain-based Message Authentication Reporting & Conformance (DMARC), Sender Policy Framework (SPF), or DomainKeys Identified Mail (DKIM) can help reduce the likelihood of successful phishing attempts.

Implement a Robust Zero Trust Architecture

A Zero Trust architecture assumes that no user or device should be trusted by default within an organization’s network. By implementing strict access controls based on least privilege principles – granting users only necessary permissions – you minimize potential attack surfaces while reducing opportunities for threat actors to move laterally through your environment.

Create Backups of Your Data Regularly

  • Data backups: Regularly backing up your data is crucial for recovering from a ransomware attack. Ensure that you have multiple copies of critical files stored in different locations, such as on-site and off-site storage or cloud-based services.
  • Test your backups: Periodically test the integrity of your backups to ensure they can be successfully restored in case of an emergency.

Conduct Vulnerability Assessment

A thorough vulnerability assessment helps identify weaknesses within your organization’s infrastructure, applications, and processes. By proactively addressing these vulnerabilities through patch management or other mitigation techniques, you reduce the likelihood of ransomware attacks exploiting known security gaps.

Develop and Test an Incident Response Plan

An effective incident response plan outlines how organizations should respond to cybersecurity incidents like ransomware attacks. This includes defining roles and responsibilities for key personnel, establishing communication protocols during a crisis, detailing steps for containment and eradication efforts, outlining recovery procedures, and defining post-incident activities. To ensure effectiveness under pressure, it is important to regularly practice this plan, by conducting tabletop exercises simulating real-world scenarios involving various stakeholders across departments.

Incorporating these strategies into your organization’s overall cybersecurity posture will help mitigate risks associated with ransomware attacks, while ensuring business continuity, even when faced with advanced threats targeting systems and networks alike.


Protecting your organization from ransomware attacks is critical to maintaining business continuity and avoiding costly downtime. This article provided an overview of the eight most common types of ransomware attacks, with guidance on how to protect against them.

Implementing a multi-layered security approach that includes regular backups, employee training, software updates, and advanced threat detection technologies can significantly reduce the risk of falling victim to a ransomware attack.